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Reading: ‘The Returned’: on the future of monographic books

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This article evaluates the current state of academic book publishing based on the findings of the Hybrid Publishing Lab's business model research. With students relying more and more on Google and Wikipedia, the role of books within today's university studies is a difficult one. From the perspective of publishers, open access (OA) embracing the digital is seen as one potential way to bridge this gap between online search engines and traditional monographs. To illustrate this further, the article delivers an overview of its findings, which highlight changes in academic publishing: publishers have switched their emphasis from delivering a product to creating a service, whereby the author rather than the reader becomes their most focused-on customer. Research frameworks, funding and conventions about academic careers, however, often still need to adjust to this new development. If these frameworks acknowledge and foster OA publishing, and new experiments with collaborative book productions flourish, the monograph will have a future.

How to Cite: Bunz, M. (2014). ‘The Returned’: on the future of monographic books. , , 30–34. DOI:
Published on 08 Apr 2014
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2013 was an important year for the digitization of the academic monograph, and the good news is: all research we conducted at the Hybrid Publishing Lab indicates that the monograph will have a future. While the monograph has been ignored for a long time, things have now begun to change. Especially in the last two years, professional publishers, new digital presses, and a range of publishing experiments have embraced the digital future of the monograph. Open access (OA), this interesting crossroad of technology, knowledge and public interest, has reached book publishing, not least thanks to the long-awaited arrival of new business models.

The EU-financed Hybrid Publishing Lab is situated at Leuphana University in Germany and is investigating the monograph at this crossroad with a special focus on scholarly communication in the humanities. Together with technology companies, publishers and research experts, the living Lab studies the digitization of books by following the interaction of knowledge technologies with business interests and researchers' preferences, and by exploring new techniques for collaboration and distribution. Some of our findings are shared below.

Under threat of violence

To begin with, it must be said that studying monographic books is rather complicated: as researchers, we find ourselves faced with a highly disputed tool. Opinions about what constitutes the essence of a book are deeply divided, and not only within broad academic communities but even within single disciplines: Robert Darnton, Professor of History at Harvard and the Director of its University Library, indicates that “new technology can make it possible to realize an old ideal, a in which citizenship extends to everyone”. Robin Osborne, Professor of Ancient History at the University of Cambridge, on the other hand, states that open access “makes no sense” because “academic research publication assumes some prior knowledge” and is “a form of teaching”. This conflict of opinion shows that we are not just dealing with the disruption of a specific medium – books – but rather with questions about who and what a book is for. Even in the natural sciences, where journal articles have been the more relevant medium for the newest research findings (with citation indexes published since 1961), until recently, students still turned to books for learning the basics. With the rise of the internet, this has changed. What is the role of the monographic book today?

Looking at submissions for the UK's Research Assessment Exercise from 2008, Nigel Vincent has argued that humanities disciplines are the only ones left where the production of monographs is still relevant. A more recent analysis of the Austrian Science Fund came to the same conclusion. However, there are signs that the role of the monograph is changing within the humanities too: we see this even among our students who, when asked to read a monograph for their studies, usually complain with disbelief: “…a whole monograph?” Several interviews conducted by the Hybrid Publishing Lab with publishers clarified the form of this crisis. An independent publishing house in Germany, which has successfully operated in the field of literature, contemporary philosophy, and art theory since 2001, said that a book by a well-received philosopher like Alain Badiou, for example, currently sells only about 400 copies, while ten years ago, the same edition would have sold 1,000. The conclusion of the publishing house was clear: “It's not the book which is at the heart of the university any more”. Instead of books, Google and Wikipedia are now the most important tools of a student's research. As we will see in the following paragraphs, the business model research conducted by our Lab seems to confirm this perspective.

“… Google and Wikipedia are now the most important tools of a student's research.”


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Positions within these Frames are stored as a Representation of a coordinate, a representation being a description of a point in a Cartesian, spherical or cylindrical system ( astropy.coordinates.representation ). A frame that contains a representation of one or many points is said to have been ‘realized’.

For a more in depth look at the design and concepts of the Astropy coordinates system see Overview of astropy.coordinates concepts

Frames and SkyCoord

The class is a high level wrapper around the package. It provides an easier way to create and transform coordinates, by using string representations for frames rather than the classes themselves and some other usability improvements, for more information see the documentation.

The main advantage provided by is the support it provides for caching Frame attributes. Frame attributes are extra data specified with a frame, some examples in are or for observer location. Only the frames where this data is meaningful have these attributes, i.e. only the Helioprojective frames have . However, when you transform into another frame and then back to a projective frame using it will remember the attributes previously provided, and repopulate the final frame with them. If you were to do transformations using the Frames alone this would not happen.

The most important implication for this in is the parameter in the projective frames. If you create a projective frame with a attribute, if you convert back to a projective frame it will be set correctly. It should also be noted that, if you create a Heliographic frame and then transform to a projective frame with an attribute, it will not match the coordinate in the Heliographic frame. This is because you may mean to be describing a point above the defined ‘surface’ of the Sun.

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package provides a mapping between FITS-WCS CTYPE convention and the coordinate frames as defined in adidas Originals Mens ZX 700 Trainers Vapour Steel US125 White 0DBegt
. This is used via the astropy.wcs.utils.wcs_to_celestial_frame function, with which the SunPy frames are registered upon being imported. This list is used by packages such as wcsaxes to convert from astropy.wcs.WCS objects to coordinate frames.

The class creates astropy.wcs.WCS objects as amap.wcs , however, it adds some extra attributes to the object to be able to fully specify the coordinate frame. It adds heliographic_observer and rsun .

From the Chicago Manual of Style

Chicago Manual / August 16, 2016

In previous posts, we’ve described and to cite the sources you quotein your paper. Today, we’ll show how to write the quotations themselves.

There are two main ways to present quotations: (1) you can set off a long quotation as a block, or (2) you can run a shorter quotation into your text with quotation marks.

First, let’s write a block quotation. Aquotation of five lines or more is a good candidate for setting as a block. Here’s a block quote from theyoung adult novel Plus One , by Elizabeth Fama :

It takes guts to deliberately mutilate your hand while operating a blister-pack sealing machine, but all I had going for me was guts. It seemed like a fair trade: lose maybe a week’s wages and possibly the tip of my right middle finger, and in exchange Poppu would get to hold his great-granddaughter before he died. I wasn’t into babies, but Poppu’s unseeing eyes filled to spilling when he spoke of Ciel’s daughter, and that was more than I could bear. It was absurd to me that the dying should grieve the living when the living in this case was only ten kilometers away. Poppu needed to hold that baby, and I was going to bring her to him. (Fama 2014, 3)

Some things to notice about the block quotation:

Fama, Elizabeth. 2014. Plus One. New York, NY: Macmillan.

Instead of theauthor-date method of citation, some instructors will tell you to use the Aisun Women’s Chunky Pumps With Ankle Strap Square Toe Dressy Buckled Shoes Simple Mid Heel Low Cut Green HIRqMQE
, which requires putting a footnote or endnote number at the end of the block quotation:

I wasn’t into babies, but Poppu’s unseeing eyes filled to spilling when he spoke of Ciel’s daughter, and that was more than I could bear. It was absurd to me that the dying should grieve the living when the living in this case was only ten kilometers away. Poppu needed to hold that baby, and I was going to bring her to him, even if Ciel wouldn’t. 1

You would then write an endnote or footnote (whichever your instructor prefers) citingpage 3 of Fama’s book. The format is the same for endnotes and footnotes:

1. Elizabeth Fama, Plus One (New York, NY: Macmillan, 2014), 3.

If you have a bibliography, the citationwould look like this:

Fama, Elizabeth. Plus One .New York, NY: Macmillan, 2014.

If you are using author-date citations, theywould look like this:

Reference list: Fama, Elizabeth. 2014. Plus One .New York, NY: Macmillan.

In-text citation: (Fama 2014)

If your quote is less than five lines, you can probably run it into your text. Let’s say that we’ve been discussing in our paper how Famauses descriptions of the characters. For instance, instead of simply telling usthat the grandfather is blind, she writes that his “unseeing eyes filled to spilling”(Fama 2014, 3).

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